It is almost a month since the 2015 London International Antiquarian Book Fair, at which Antiquates exhibited for the first time. Time to reminisce!
The preparations for it and the fair itself were in equal measure exhilarating and somewhat daunting – months of acquiring stock, several weeks of late nights and many very early mornings had gone into cataloguing my books, and packing up took several days. And that was only the start.
I’ve been attending as a visitor since I was an awestruck teenager, and arriving to an empty stand with my 15 boxes of books (many thanks to RF Shipping, who delivered and collected my fair stock wonderfully), fair catalogues (which can still be read, here) and accessories made me feel somewhat the dilletante again. A few hours and several rearrangements later, I was feeling more positive.
After a good night’s rest, further re-organisation, a quick tour of the fair and some final hints from my friend and next-door-neighbour at the fair, Dean Byass, the stand was ready. Lucky really, as it was 2pm on Thursday, and doors had just opened.
The following two days went by in a flash. After meeting and talking books with customers new and long-standing, writing invoices, popping to the PBFA International Antiquarian Book Fair just down the road (another great event at which Antiquates also had a stall) and sharing a pint with a couple of old friends, it was Friday evening.
I was happy on the Saturday to conduct a short tour of part of the fair, which also functioned as a brief introduction into why people collect books (soon to be extended into a series on this very blog – watch this space). Thankfully, to the great relief of my vocal chords towards the end of the fair, this featured some cameo appearances from Josh Clayton of Jarndyce (who really captured my small group’s imagination with a Charles Dickens holograph manuscript), Derek Walker of Blackwell’s Rare Books, Christian White of Modernfirsteditions and Sammy Jay of Peter Harrington.
Trade was brisk; I bought and sold some great books. The company was a treat; we were next to Dean Byass, opposite Peter Rowan and just up from Nick McConnell. The venue was majestic, the administration flawless, and security was fantastic.
— Pearjuice (@pearjuice999) May 31, 2015
Dean Byass and I on the final day
Don’t take my word for what a treat this fair – the highlight of the British antiquarian book-trade calendar – really is. If you are a member of ILAB and even considering exhibiting in London, then do; if you’re at all interested in books and book-collecting, then come next year. Or better yet, come to Chelsea in November and then come to Olympia in 2016!
The Travelling Bookman June 20th, 2015
I am an historian by training, but a bibliophile by nature – I see history through books. People make history, but until the twentieth century it was mostly in books and documents that history was recorded. Manuscripts are by their very nature frequently unique, whilst printed works are generally not. That said, here at Antiquates we tend to unearth a few unrecorded books each year. Sometimes these are unrecorded editions of known texts, every know and again they are entirely unrecorded texts. Unrecorded texts are generally unrecorded for a reason. Perhaps they failed to resonate with a paying public, or were superseded by events or innovations, as tables of logarithms and interest were made obsolete by the pocket calculator. Once in a blue moon a discovery of an unrecorded text turn out to be of real historical importance; I’m pleased that Antiquates is offering one such work at our stand (G11) at this week’s London international antiquarian book fair at Olympia.
This significant ‘find’, what appears to be the first printed guide to modern policing in London, is only 15 pages in length and housed within a sammelband of eighteenth-century European works on criminal law, punishment and policing. It is a remarkable survival.
The Marine Police-Office was set up in July 1798, in order to combat the growing losses of cargo at London’s docks. Based upon a plan composed by Essex Justice of the Peace and Master Mariner John Harriott, supported by philosopher Jeremy Bentham and campaigned for by London Magistrate Patrick Colquhoun, the force was sanctioned by government but funded by those who stood to gain from reduction of River theft: the planters and merchants of the West India Company. Consisting initially of just fifty officers, the marine constables were charged with policing more than 30,000 London dock workers. The initial success of the force was reported in the sixth edition (London, 1800) of Colquhoun’s Treatise on the police of the Metropolis: ‘certain it is, that previous to the establishment of the Marine Police System…the incease [in losses] had been regular and progressive, while the easy manner in which this species of property was obtained, generated an accession of plunderers every year’. Establishment recognition of success was swift; Colquhoun and Harriott’s private enterprise was taken under government control just over two years later with the passing of the Marine Police Bill on 28th July 1800.
This short guide, dated 7th August 1798 to the second leaf, forms a rule-book and guide to the responsibilities, rights and powers of the river constables. Oaths of office, vigilance, fidelity and allegiance to the overseeing magistrates and the King, along with rules for proper conduct and sobriety are included alongside a more technical description of the operating procedures of the new force. These details include such preventative measures as the posting of ‘A CAUTION’ on newly docked ships and the lighting of lanterns at night. The process of apprehending criminals and the connection and close working relationship between the constables and their magistrates are both firmly outlined, with the expectations of the latter including the careful noting of details in ‘Check-Books’ highlighted. Finally, and perhaps most importantly for the professional nature of the new force, the details of Pay for the constables is outlined: 5s per day whilst ships are unloading, dropping to half pay either on completion or after ten-days.
Given these details t is unsurprising that it was Colquhoun’s first professional, salaried force, with an emphasis on upholding the law and preventing criminality through deterrent was the model, coupled with clear financial cost-benefit analysis, which converted the English political economy to abandon law-enforcement founded in the medieval period and embrace the foundation of a public police force. Thus, when the Metropolitan Police Force was founded by statute in 1829, it resembled more the Marine Police Force than the mid eighteenth-century Bow Street Runners.
Printed items are rarely unique, but occasionally there is justification for believing they are the only extant copy. This first instruction manual for the first modern London police force is entirely unrecorded in the usual databases. Given a likely print run just exceeding the size of the new force, around 50, and taking into account the ephemeral format and practical nature of such a book, it is entirely possible that this is the sole remaining example.
Instructions to marine police-constables serving as watchmen and guards for the protection of commercial property in ships and vessels in and upon the river thames, and in lighters passing from the said vessels to the quays and wharfs in the Port of London. Marine police-office, under the sanction of government. Instituted 2d July, 1798.
London. Printed by H.L. Galabin, Ingram-Court, Fenchurch-Street, 1798. First edition.8vo. 15pp, . Not in ESTC.
[Bound third amongst a sammelband of seven works on policing, crime and punishment, with:]
I. FIELDING, Henry. An enquiry Into the causes of the late Increase of Roberts, &c. With some proposals for Remedying this Growing Evil… London. Printed for A. Millar, 1751. Second edition. [iii]-xxxii, 203pp, . Without half-title. ESTC T89871
II. [WOOL]. Proposals For preventing the Running of Wool, And encouraging the Woollen Manufacture. London. Printed for J. Peele, 1731. -31pp, . Without half-title. Marking to title and following leaf, price shaved from imprint. ESTC T70310.
IV. [SERVAN, Mr.] Discours sur l’administration de la justice criminelle, prononce par Mr. Avocat-General. A Geneve, [i.e. Geneva]. [s.n.], 1767. , 152pp.
V. DRAGONETTI, Giacinto. Abhandlung von den Jugenden und ihren Belohnungen als eine Fortsetzung der Abhandlung von den Verbrechen und ihren Strafen Aus dem Franzosischen. Riga. ben J.F. Hartsnoch, 1769. First German edition. 88pp. Occasional shaving to running title. Rare, with OCLC locating a single copy (Danish Union catalogue).
VI. SONNERFELS, H.V. Uber die Abschaffung der Tortur. Zurich. Bey Orell, Gessner, Feusslin und Compagnie. 1775. First edition. 117pp, .
VII. ZAUPSER, Andreas. Gedanken uber einige Punkte des Kriminalrechtes in drei Abhandlungen. Munchen, [i.e. Munich]. Gedruckt bey Johann Paul Jacob Botter, 1777. 64, 79-80. Lacks E1-6, with tear to final leaf.
Finely bound in twentieth-century half tan morocco, gilt, over buckram boards, by Sangorski and Sutcliffe.
The Travelling Bookman May 22nd, 2015
I really rather enjoy my job, not least because it frequently leads me down an entirely new avenue of discovery. This can be especially intellectually satisfying when a book passing across my desk comes to life as the full story of it’s origin, writing or later provenance is examined.
One item that Antiquates has only just acquired, and that I’ve been furiously researching and carefully cataloguing in order to bring it along to exhibit at our stand (G11) at this week’s London international antiquarian book fair at Olympia revealed a lovely connection between history, literature, romance and music at the turn of the nineteenth-century. A poem that connects a young female poet resident at Naples to England’s greatest naval hero and one of England’s most notorious love affairs to Austrian composer Joseph Haydn at a time of great European tumult: this is its story.
Housed within a handsomely bound collection of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century pamphlets is one of the rarities of the Lord Nelson canon: English poet, artist and socialite Ellis Cornelia Knight’s famous ode celebrating Nelson’s victory at the Battle of the Nile in the summer of 1798. The volume, almost certainly bound together out of utility rather than any coherence, contains several other significant first editions of eighteenth-century works of literature (Pratt’s Humanity on the inequities of slavery and Browne’s famous work on the immortality of the soul), important titles in eighteenth-century history (John Almon’s Letter is an examination of the failure of the British in the American revolutionary wars) and two educational rarities – but it is The Battle of the Nile which occupies the rest of this post.
Ellis Cornelia Knight (1757-1837) had spent much of the final decade of the eighteenth-century on the continent with her mother, Lady Knight. The final year of the latter’s life saw the pair living in Naples and, following Nelson’s evacuation of the Bourbon monarchy in 1798, in Palermo. There and most especially after her mother’s death, Knight, the daughter of Sir Joseph Knight, rear-admiral of the White, proved a ‘daughter of the waves’ who revelled in the company and protections of Nelson, the English ambassador to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sir William Hamilton, and his wife Emma. It was thus in close proximity to of one of the most notorious love affairs of English history, between Nelson and the diplomat’s young wife, that Knight composed this celebration of the English hero of the Nile. She acquired the epithet of ‘Nelson’s poet laureate’ from his fellow naval officers, but as the dedication of The Battle of the Nile to Sir William Hamilton indicates, was very much the literary organ of the trio. The poem was first printed at Naples in 1799 in what must have been a very limited, and almost certainly a private print run; the work is not recorded in ESTC and institutionally is represented by the British library copy only.
The history of this rare poem, and indeed the company in which it was composed, did not end with the first edition, nor in Naples. After a somewhat contentious involvement in the domestic politics of the Bourbon dynasty, which culminated in Nelson charging and executing a Neapolitan admiral in the Bay of Naples, and quite startling displays of caprice verging on insubordination, Nelson was ordered back to England. This coincided, rather helpfully, with the granting of Sir William Hamilton’s request for relief from his post. As a result, Nelson, the Hamiltons and a group of English fellow travellers voyaged to England by way of central Europe in the September of 1800 – and it is here that the story turns musical. The group visited the Esterhazy family and their court composer Joseph Haydn at Eisenstadt, and were honoured by a performance of the latter’s Missa in Angustiis, a mass composed when all of Europe and especially Vienna was threatened by Napoleon but first performed when Europe was digesting the impact of Nelson’s victory at the Nile. Unsurprisingly given the association, Missa in Angustiis has become known as the ‘Nelson Mass’.
Slightly lesser known is the cantata ‘Lines from the Battle of the Nile’ that Haydn produced, presumably after meeting Knight during the group’s September visit and reputedly for performance by soprano Emma Hamilton, with lines taken from the former’s poem celebrating Nelson’s triumph. The publication of the second edition of the poem in Vienna by the widow of famous associate of Mozart, Ignaz Alberti, must surely have been related to this fabulous combination of the literature, music, romance and heroism that accompanied the English travellers’ visit to Austria in that summer of 1800. It is almost as rare and most likely printed once again in very small numbers; not recorded by ESTC, OCLC locates copies at Harvard, NMM and Strasbourg only, with COPAC adding another at Oxford. No copy of either is recorded in recent auction records.
I had the ‘Nelson Mass’ playing in the background whilst cataloguing this fine volume. After cracking the mystery of why a poem about Egypt first published in Naples should have appeared a year later in Vienna, I simply had to listen to the Haydn Cantata ‘Lines from the Battle of the Nile’. It doesn’t disappoint!
The Travelling Bookman May 20th, 2015